Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book
Q7nbF/526x297-Krz.jpg' alt='Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book' title='Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book' />History of electric power transmission. The history of the technology of moving electricity far from where it was generated dates from the late 1. This includes movement of electricity in bulk formally referred to as transmission, and the delivery of electricity distribution to individual customers. The distinction between the two terms did not exist in early years and were used interchangeably. Early transmissioneditThis section is about an event or subject but lacks specific dates for context. Please help improve it to include this information. The talk page may contain suggestions. November 2. 01. 4. Berlin, 1. 88. 4. Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book' title='Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book' />To bid and work on construction projects in Arkansas that cost 20,000 or more, you must get a contractors license. To find out if a contractor is licensed in. Ecigr is an online library and bookstore where you can find all our publications Electra, Symposia, Coloquia, Green Books, Brochure and Cigre Science Engineering. With double the brilliance of gaslight, arc lamps were in high demand for stores and public areas. Arc lighting circuits used up to thousands of volts with arc lamps connected in series. Prior to electricity, various systems have been used for transmission of power across large distances. Chief among them were telodynamic cable in motion, pneumatic pressurized air, and hydraulic pressurized fluid transmission. Cable cars were the most frequent example of telodynamic transmission, whose lines could extend for several miles for a single section. Pneumatic transmission was used for city power transmission systems in Paris, Birmingham, Rixdorf, Offenbach, Dresden and Buenos Aires at the beginning of the twentieth century. Cities in the 1. 9th century also used hydraulic transmission using high pressure water mains to deliver power to factory motors. Londons system delivered 7. These systems were replaced by cheaper and more versatile electrical systems, but by the end of the 1. In the early days of electric power usage, widespread transmission of electric power had two obstacles. First, devices requiring different voltages required specialized generators with their own separate lines. Street lights, electric motors in factories, power for streetcars and lights in homes are examples of the diversity of devices with voltages requiring separate systems. Secondly, generators had to be relatively near their loads a mile or less for low voltage devices. It was known that long distance transmission was possible the higher the voltage was raised, so both problems could be solved if transforming voltages could be cheaply performed from a single universal power line. Specialized systemseditStreetcars created enormous demand for early electricity. This Siemens Tram from 1. V direct current, which was typical. Much of early electricity was direct current, which could not easily be increased or decreased in voltage either for long distance transmission or for sharing a common line to be used with multiple types of electric devices. Companies simply ran different lines for the different classes of loads their inventions required, for example, Charles Brushs New York arc lamp systems required up to 1. V for many lamps in a series circuit, Edisonsincandescent lights used 1. V, streetcars built by Siemens or Sprague required large motors in the 5. Due to this specialization of lines, and because transmission was so inefficient, it seemed at the time that the industry would develop into what is now known as a distributed generation system with large numbers of small generators located near their loads. Early high voltage exterior lightingeditHigh voltage was of interest to early researchers working on the problem of transmission over distance. I/51y9vrirb8L.jpg' alt='Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book' title='Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book' />2. Fuses in Engine Compartment. Toyota Tacoma second generation Fuse Box located in the Engine Compartment. Skid Control ECU with Actuator with VSC. OSP Fiber Optic Installation All fiber optic applications are not the same. At the FOA, were mainly concerned with communications fiber optics telco, CATV, LAN. Http Much of the US is honeycombed with naturally occurring caves and caves systems, sinkholes and abandoned mines especially. The majority of trucks with manual transmissions are in the midsize category. There are no halftons with a manual transmission, and there is just one heavy duty. HPPHP1557.jpg' alt='Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book' title='Underground Transmission Systems Reference Book' />They knew from elementary electricity principle that the same amount of power could be transferred on a cable by doubling the voltage and halving the current. Due to Joules Law, they also knew that the capacity of a wire is proportional to the square of the current traveling on it, regardless the voltage, and so by doubling the voltage, the same cable would be capable of transmitting the same amount of power four times the distance. At the Paris Exposition of 1. Avenue de lOpera and the Place de lOpera, using electric Yablochkov arc lamps, powered by Znobe Gramme alternating current dynamos. Yablochkov candles required high voltage, and it was not long before experimenters reported that the arc lamps could be powered on a 7 mile 1. Within a decade scores of cities would have lighting systems using a central power plant that provided electricity to multiple customers via electrical transmission lines. These systems were in direct competition with the dominant gaslight utilities of the period. Brush Electric Companys central power plant dynamos powered arc lamps for public lighting in New York. Beginning operation in December 1. West Twenty Fifth Street, it powered a 2 mile 3. The idea of investing in a central plant and a network to deliver energy produced to customers who pay a recurring fee for service was familiar business model for investors it was identical to the lucrative gaslight business, or the hydraulic and pneumatic power transmission systems. The only difference was the commodity being delivered was electricity, not gas, and the pipes used for delivering were more flexible. The California Electric Company now PG E in San Francisco in 1. Charles Brushs company to supply multiple customers with power for their arc lamps. This San Francisco system was the first case of a utility selling electricity from a central plant to multiple customers via transmission lines. CEC soon opened a second plant with 4 additional generators. Service charges for light from sundown to midnight was 1. In December 1. 88. Brush Electric Company set up a central station to supply a 2 mile 3. Broadway with arc lighting. By the end of 1. 88. New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Montreal, Buffalo, San Francisco, Cleveland and other cities had Brush arc lamp systems, producing public light well into the 2. By 1. 89. 3 there were 1. New York streets. Direct current lightingeditExtremely bright arc lights were too bright, and with the high voltages and sparkingfire hazard, too dangerous to use indoors. In 1. 87. 8 inventor Thomas Edison saw a market for a system that could bring electric lighting directly into a customers business or home, a niche not served by arc lighting systems. After devising a commercially viable incandescent light bulb in 1. Edison went on to develop the first large scale investor owned electric illumination utility in lower Manhattan, eventually serving one square mile with 6 jumbo dynamos housed at Pearl Street Station. When service began in September 1. Each dynamo produced 1. W2enough for 1. 20. V via underground conduits. The system cost 3. Operating expenses exceeded income in the first two years and fire destroyed the plant in 1. Further, Edison had a three wire system so that either 1. V or 2. 20 V could be supplied to power some motors. Availability of large scale generationeditAvailability of large amounts of power from diverse locations would become possible after Charles Parsons production of turbogenerators beginning 1. Turbogenerator output quickly jumped from 1. W to 2. 5 megawatts in two decades. Prior to efficient turbogenerators, hydroelectric projects were a significant source of large amounts of power requiring transmission infrastructure. Induction coils advantage of alternating currenteditWhen George Westinghouse became interested in electricity, he quickly and correctly concluded that Edisons low voltages were too inefficient to be scaled up for transmission needed for large systems. The FOA Reference For Fiber Optics. Outside Plant Fiber Optic Cable Plant Installation Jump To The Role of the Contractor in an Installation Installation Checklist Preparing For Outside Plant Installations Pulling and Placing OSP Cable Hardware and Equipment Training and Safety Installing Fiber Optic Cable Splicing and Termination Testing the Installed Fiber Optic Cable Plant Administration, Management, and Documentation OSP Fiber Optic Installation. All fiber optic applications are not the same. At the FOA, were mainly concerned with communications fiber optics telco, CATV, LAN, industrial, etc., but fiber optics are also used in medical or nondestructive testing inspection and lighting. Even within communications applications, we have applications that differ widely in usage and in methods of installation. We have outside plant fiber optics as used in telephone networks, CATV, metropolitan networks, utilities, etc. We have fiber on platforms like cars, planes and ships and the space station. Just like wire which can mean lots of different things power, security, HVAC, CCTV, LAN or telephone fiber optics is not all the same. Since all these applications require different installation procedures, this section will focus on OSP installation in more detail. The Installation. After the process of designing fiber optic networks is completed, the next step is to install it. What do we mean by the installation process Assuming the design is completed, were looking at the process of physically installing and completing the network, turning the design into an operating system. This chapter covers preparing for the installation, requirements for training and safety and then the actual installation process. Since outside plant fiber optic networks can cover a broad range of installation types using varied components over different types of geography, it is impossible to cover the specifics of any one installation. This chapter should provide an overview of the various options available in OSP installations and general knowledge that should prepare those involved in any particular installation to understand how to proceed. The Role of the Contractor in an Installation. To begin work on a fiber optic installation, the network owner or user must choose a contractor, perhaps the most important decision in the entire process. The fiber optic contractor should be able to work with the customer in each installation project through six stages design, installation, testing, troubleshooting, documentation and restoration. The contractor must be experienced in fiber optic installations of the type involved and should be able to provide references for similar work. One should be able to rely the contractor to not only do the installation but to assist in the design of the network and help choose components and vendors. Once the contractor has been given the assignment, they should be able to help the customer with the design, including choosing the right kinds of fibers, cables, connectors and hardware for the installation. The contractor should know which components meet industry standards to ensure interoperability and what state of the art components will facilitate future expandability. The experienced contractor also should be able to help in the choice of vendors. Experience with particular product types and vendors will allow the contractor to assist the customer to choose products that make the installation faster and easier and often higher performance and more reliable. Should the customer choose components that are unfamiliar to the contractor, it is important that the contractor know early in the process so they may obtain proper training, often from the manufacturer, as well as any unique tools that may be required. Generally, the customer is not as familiar with fiber optic technology and practice as an experienced contractor. The contractor may need to discuss certain choices with the customer where they believe alternatives may be better choices. The actual installation process can involve more than just putting in cable, terminating and testing it. If the contractor is knowledgeable and experienced, the user may ask the contractor to purchase, receive, inspect and bring components to the work site also, which can be another good source of revenue for the contractor. Having full control of the materials process can also make life easier for the contractor, as they have a better chance to keep on schedule rather than depending on a customer who has many other priorities. Honorbuddy Questing Profiles. Plus, they may have the latitude to choose components they are more familiar with, facilitating the actual installation process. The technicians actually doing the installation should be trained and certified by organizations like The Fiber Optic Association www. Certification provides a level of confidence that the installation techs are knowledgeable and have the skills needed for the work involved. The final four requirements from the contractor, testing, troubleshooting, documentation and restoration, need to be discussed before the project ever begins. Every fiber optic project requires insertion loss testing of every link with a light source and power meter or optical loss test set according to industry standards. Some projects, like long outside plant links with splices, may also require OTDR testing. The contractor and customer must agree that testing includes troubleshooting problems and fixing them as well as documenting test results for every link. Likewise, for the contractor, documentation must begin before the project starts so the scope of work is known to everyone and end only when the final test data is entered. Copies of the documentation, along with excess components left over from the installation, must be presented to the customer to facilitate future network restoration, should it be required. The Contract. The contract for a fiber optic installation should include detailed requirements for the project, spelling out exactly what is to be installed, acceptable test results, and documentation to be provided. All this should be discussed between the customer and the contractor and agreed to in writing. They are not irrelevant details, as they are important to ensure the customer gets what they expect and the contractor knows what is expected of them when designing the network, estimating costs, doing the actual installation and providing proof of performance in order to show the work is completed and payment should be made. Planning For The Project. Once the contracts are signed and a set of plans has been handed to the contractor, whats next Planning the job is the first task. Proper planning is important to ensure the job is installed properly, on time and meets cost objectives, so the contractor can make a profit. It is assumed you have a finished design for the project, know where and how everything will be installed and have any special requirements like permits ready. One can also assume you have a completion date, hopefully a reasonable one, to work toward. The first step then is to create a schedule which will be the centerpiece of the planning process. In order to schedule a job, you need a lot of information, much of which can be acquired from estimates you did when bidding the job. When buyers price the components to be used on a job, they should get delivery times as well as prices.